DIABETES OF THE TYPE 2

Definition


The diabetes of the type 2 (previously called diabetes noninsulino-dependant or diabetes on maturity) results from a misuse of insulin by the organization. The diabetes of the type 2 accounts for 90 % of the diabetes met in the world. It is mainly the result of a ponderal overload and sedentariness.


Symptoms


The symptoms are the following: excessive excretion of urine (polyurie), feeling of thirst (polydipsy), constant hunger, weight loss, deterioration of the vision and tiredness.


The symptoms can be the same ones as those of the diabetes of the type 1 but are often marked. So the disease can be diagnosed several years after its appearance, once the complications already present.


Usual consequences


With time, the diabetes can damage the heart, the blood-vessels, the eyes, the kidneys and the nerves.

  • The diabetes increases the risk of cardiopathy and cerebral vascular accident. 50 % of the diabetics die of a cardiovascular disease (mainly cardiopathy and cerebral vascular accident).
  • Associated with a reduction in the blood flow, the neuropathy which touches the feet increases the probability of appearance of ulcers of the feet and, at the end of the day, of amputation of the members.
  • The retinopathy diabetic is an important cause of blindness and occurs in consequence of the lesions of the small blood-vessels of the retina which accumulate with time. At the end of 15 years of diabetes, nearly 2 % of the subjects become blind and approximately 10 % present serious visual attacks.
  • The diabetes appears among the leading causes of impaired renal function. 10 to 20 % of the diabetics die of an impaired renal function.
  • Neuropathy diabetic made following the nervous lesions due to the diabetes and touches up to 50 % of the diabetics. Although many different problems can result from a neuropathy diabetic, the current symptoms are the following: swarming, pain, numbness or weakness on the level of the feet and the hands.
  • The general risk of death in the diabetics is at least twice more important than at their pars which do not have diabetes.

Prevention

We showed that simple measurements modifying the lifestyle could be effective to prevent or delay the diabetes of the type 2.To prevent this diabetes and its complications, people must:

  • • to arrive to a normal body weight and to maintain it;
  • • to make physical exercise - at least 30 minutes per day of a regular exercise of moderate intensity. A more intense physical-activity is necessary to lose weight;
  • • to have a healthy food mode composed of three to five fruit and vegetables per day and to reduce the contribution out of sugar and saturated greases;
  • • to stop the tobacco - the cigarette increases the cardiovascular disease risk.

Diagnosis and treatment

We can pose an early diagnosis using a blood testing.


The treatment of the diabetes imposes the lowering of the glycemia and the reduction of the other risk factors of lesion of the blood-vessels.


The following interventions must be realized:

  • • control moderate glycemia. The people reached of diabetes of the type 2 can be treated by a medication by oral way, but can also need insulin;
  • • control blood-pressure;
  • • care of the feet.
  • • the tracking of the retinopathy (which causes blindness);
  • • the control of the blood lipids (in order to control the cholesterol concentrations);
  • tracking of the first signs of a renal disease related to the diabetes.

Source : WHO